22 de marzo de 2009


In 1626 Tienpont's successor, Peter Minuit, a German, born at Wesel, was appointed Director-General of New Netherland. He bought of the Indians, for the sum of twenty-four dollars, the entire island of Manhattan, and a fort called New Amsterdam was built. The State of New York dates its beginning from this transaction.
By their usually honest dealing with the natives the Dutch settlers gained the friendship of the Five Nations, whose good-will was partly on this account transferred to the English colonists later. The Dutch were not only friendly to the red men, but tried to open social and commercial relations with the Plymouth colonists as well. Governor Bradford replied, mildly urging the Dutch to "clear their title" to a territory which the English claimed by right of discovery.

The present State of Delaware soon became the scene of attempts at settlement. De Vries began, in 1632, a colony on the banks of the Delaware, but it was quickly laid waste by the savages, who had been needlessly provoked by the insolence of the commander left in charge of the colony. In 1633 Minuit was succeeded by Van Twiller, and a fort was erected at Hartford, though the English claimed this country as theirs. Emigrants from the Plymouth colony began the settlement of Windsor, in spite of the protests of the Dutch. Long Island was invaded by enterprising New Englanders, regardless of the claim of New Netherland thereto.
This "irrepressible conflict" between two races was by no means abated by the introduction of a third. As early as 1626, Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden and the hero of the Thirty Years' War, had entertained the idea of establishing colonies in America, and in pursuance of that object had encouraged the formation of a company, not only for trading purposes but also to secure a refuge for the "oppressed of all Christendom." To Usselinx, an Antwerp merchant, the originator of the Dutch West India Company, belongs the honor of first suggesting to the king this enterprise. The glorious death of Gustavus on the victorious field of Lutzen in 1632 deferred the execution of a purpose which had not been forgotten even in the midst of that long and arduous campaign.
But a few days before he fell, the Protestant hero had spoken of the colonial prospect as "the jewel of his kingdom."
See also:NEW NETHERLAND 1614-1618

Poverty 1536-1851

Chronology of Poverty until 1851:
1536: King François I of France bans begging throughout the whole of France.
1596: The first workhouse for the poor is built in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
1601: British legislators pass the Poor Law Act, providing financial relief to children and the physically handicapped.
The act would later be updated in 1795.
1623: Philosopher William Petty, who would lay the basis for modern census-taking, is born in Hampshire, England, as the son of a clothier.
1642: The newly settled Plymouth Colony creates the first poor law in the English-speaking New World.
1651: Philosopher Thomas Hobbes publishes Leviathan, the book for which he is most known. In the book, Hobbes adopts a pessimistic view of the state of human nature, writing that life is nothing more tan “nasty, brutish, and short.”
1750: One of the first almshouses, or ramshackle living spaces designed to house the extremely poor, is built in the United States.
1789: Six thousand French women march on the palace of King Louis XVI in Versailles, demanding bread.
1795: British legislators update the 1601 Poor Law Act, extending relief eligibility to the physically able.
One of the first poverty lines is created in the English city of Speenhamland. When a worker’s wage fell below this line, which was based on both the price of bread and the number of dependents, or children, the worker is required to support, a worker would be eligible to receive relief.
1818: Karl Marx, considered the father of communism, is born in Trier, Germany, to a wealthy Jewish family.
1820: Friedrich Engels, who would cowrite with Karl Marx six books on the subject of communism, is born in Wuppertal, Germany, to a successful textile industrialist.
Sent to work at a cotton factory in Manchester, England, as a young man, Engels’s discovery of the working conditions inspires his social consciousness.
1833: French author Frédéric Ozanam founds the Conference of Charity, later known as the St. Vincent de Paul Society.
1848: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto, which is summed up by its opening line: “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle.”
1851: The first American chapter of the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), an organization devoted to providing relief to young people despite religious affiliation, is founded in the city of Boston.

See also: Poverty 1534