17 de marzo de 2009

Brasil 1534-1548

1534.

Pero Lopes de Sousa, irmão de Martim Affonso, tendo obtido a Capitania de S. Amaro encravada na de S. Vicente, consegue fundar huma pequena colonia, não sem bastante resistencia dos Indigenas.--A Pero de Goes coube a Capitania da Parahyba do Sul; e tendo della tomado posse neste anno, vê-se obrigado a abandonal-a dentro em pouco tempo.--A Vasco Fernandes Coutinho coube a Capitania do Espirito Santo: consegue estabelecer-se nas immediações do lugar onde desembarcou Cabral, e aldêar os Indios Tupininquins ahi existentes.--A Jorge de Figueiredo Corrêa foi dada a Capitania dos Ilhéos; e a Pero do Campo Toyrinho a de Porto-Seguro. Ambas estas Capitanias florecerão dentro em pouco tempo, chegando até a de Porto-Seguro a exportar grande quantidade de assucar.
1535.

Tendo sido dada a Duarte Coelho Pereira a Capitania de Pernambuco, chega elle ao seu destino, trazendo em sua companhia grande numero de familias: e depois de expellir os temiveis Cahetés, lança os fundamentos da cidade de Olinda. Na expulsão dos Cahetés muito o auxiliárão os Indios Tabyra, Hagybe (braço de ferro), e Piragyhe (braço de peixe).--Ao celebre historiador João de Barros fôra dada a Capitania do Maranhão. Porém não lhe sendo possivel tratar immediatamente de povoar e colonisar a Capitania, cedeo-a em favor de Luiz de Mello, ao qual succede a desgraça de naufragar nos baixios do Maranhão.--A Francisco Pereira Coutinho coube a Capitania da Bahia de Todos os Santos; e chega a seu destino neste anno. (Afóra as 9 capitanias que temos mencionado, devemos ás minuciosissimas investigações do Sr. Varnaghen o conhecimento de mais 3, cujos Donatarios foram Ayres da Cunha, Fernão Alvares de Almada, e Antonio Cardoso de Barros, perfazendo assim o numero de 12, em que diz Barros fôra dividido o Brasil).
1535--1548.

Tendo sido mal succedido Luiz de Mello na Capitania do Maranhão, é João de Barros reintegrado nos seus direitos a essa Capitania. Faz elle uma sociedade com Fernão Alvares de Andrade, e Ayres da Cunha para a colonisação da Capitania. Sahe com effeito huma expedição ao mando de Ayres da Cunha; porém teve nos mesmos baixios do Maranhão o mesmo desastroso fim de Luiz de Mello (1536).--Tambem na sua Capitania he infeliz Francisco Pereira Coutinho, mas por culpa sua. E com effeito, em lugar de tratar brandamente os Indios e de procurar sua amizade e alliança, fez-lhes guerra de exterminio, chegando até a apossar-se dolosamente de Diogo Alvares Corrêa o Caramurú. A famosa Paraguassú, esposa de Caramurú, excita os Tupinambás á vingança, e obriga Coutinho a fugir. Feita porém a paz, voltava este á Bahia, quando huma furiosa tempestade o fez naufragar em Itaparíca (1548). Os que escaparão do naufragio morrerão ás mãos dos Indigenas; entre elles o proprio Coutinho: só forão poupados Caramurú, e sua comitiva.

Leia também: Brasil 1526, 1532

Brasil 1526, 1532

1526.

Para obstar a qualquer tentativa dos estrangeiros no Brasil parte huma esquadra ao mando de Christovão Jacques. Com effeito, chegando este á Bahia de Todos os Santos encontra e mette a pique dous navios Francezes que poucos dias antes ahi havião entrado. Parte depois para o Norte, e funda nas costas de Pernambuco a primeira feitoria Portugueza, denominada Itamaracá.
1530.

Tendo-se os Francezes estabelecido na feitoria de Itamaracá, por elles occupada, envia El-Rei Duarte Coelho Pereira que os expulsa, e transfere a feitoria para Iguaraçú, poucas milhas distante da primeira.--Tendo-se tambem sabido que os Hespanhóes se achavão estabelecidos no Rio da Prata, e temendo El-Rei que elles se quizessem estender pelas terras do Brasil envia uma armada ás ordens de Martim Affonso de Sousa (3 de Dezembro).
1531.

El-Rei divide o Brasil em Capitanias hereditarias; as quaes distribue por pessoas benemeritas por seus serviços com a obrigação de povoal-as afim de obstar ás invasões estrangeiras, e aos ataques dos Indigenas.--Martim Affonso de Sousa, primeiro Donatario, chega a Pernambuco e dirige-se para o sul: entra na Bahia de Nicterohy ou Rio de Janeiro a 30 de Abril (posto que alguns Escriptores dizem ter sido ao 1.º de Janeiro de 1532, e outros ao 1.º de Janeiro de 1531. Nós porém seguimos neste ponto o Diario da Navegação de Pero Lopes, onde se pode ver a observação que faz Varnaghen a esta questão): corre ao S., e chega até o Rio da Prata. Não encontrando pela costa estabelecimento algum Hespanhol ou estrangeiro, faz-se de volta á sua Capitania.
1532.

Entra Martim Affonso na Bahia de S. Vicente na Capitania do mesmo nome (22 de Janeiro), e ahi funda elle a primeira povoação de alguma importancia no Brasil, que denomina S. Vicente. (Outros escriptores dizem ter Martim Affonso entrado no porto de Santos e depois disto fundado ao S. desta Bahia a colonia de S. Vicente. Porém abandonando esta opinião por menos bem fundada, seguimos inteiramente a relação de Pero Lopes, já tantas vezes citada). Brilhante foi a sua administração. Por meio de João Ramalho conseguio a alliança do celebre Indio Tebyriçá; e em paz com os Indigenas, só cuidou na prosperidade da colonia, introduzio as criações muares, a canna de assucar, etc.

Leia também:Brasil 1510-1521

1650

From 1643 to 1684 Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven formed a confederation under the style of the United Colonies of New England. Maine, Providence, and Rhode Island sought membership, but were refused as being civilly and religiously out of harmony with the colonies named. Connecticut, offensive to the Dutch, and exposed to hostilities from them, was the most earnest for the union, while at the same time the most conservative as to its form. It was a loose league, leaving each colony independent save as to war and peace, Indian affairs, alliances and boundaries. Questions pertaining to these were to be settled by a commission of two delegates from each of the four colonies, meeting yearly, voting man by man, six out of the eight votes being necessary to bind.

The confederacy settled a boundary dispute between New Haven and New Netherland in 1650. It received and disbursed moneys, amounting some years to 600 pounds, for the propagation of the gospel in New England, sent over by the society which Parliament incorporated for that purpose in 1649. It was also of more or less service in securing united action against the savages in Philip's War. The union was, however, of Little immediate service, useful rather as an example for the far future. Its failure was due partly to the distance of the colonies apart, and to the strength of the instinct for local self-government, a distinguishing political trait of New England till our day. Its main weakness, however, was the overbearing power and manner of Massachusetts, especially after her assumption of Maine in 1652. In 1653 the Plymouth, New Haven, and Connecticut commissioners earnestly wished war with New Netherland, but Massachusetts proudly forbade--a plain violation of the articles. After this there was not much heart in the alliance. The last meeting of the commissioners occurred at Hartford, September 5, 1684.

See also: 1638

1638

Some friends of Mrs. Anne Hutchinson established a colony on Aquidneck, the Indian name for Rhode Island. Williams went to England and secured from Parliament a patent which united that plantation with his in one government. Charles II.'s charter of 1663 added Warwick to the first two settlements, renewing and enlarging the patent, and giving freest scope for government according to Williams' ideas. Mrs. Hutchinson, a woman of rare intellect and eloquence, who maintained the right of prívate judgment and pretended to an infallible inner light of revelation, was, like Williams, a victim of Puritan intolerance. She and her followers were banished, and some of them, returning, put to death, 1659-60. She came to Providence, then went to Aquidneck, where her husband died in 1642. She next settled near Hurl Gate, within the Dutch limits, where herself and almost her entire family were butchered by the Indians in 1643.

In 1633 the Dutch erected a fort where Hartford now is, but some English emigrants from Plymouth Colony, in defiance of a threatened cannonade, sailed past and built a trading-house at Windsor, where, joined by colonists, from about Boston, they soon effected a settlement.
Wethersfield and Hartford were presently founded. In 1630 the Plymouth Company had granted Connecticut to the Earl of Warwick, who turned it over to Lord Brooke, Lord Say-and-Seal, and others. Winthrop the Younger, son of Governor Winthrop, of Massachusetts, commissioned by these last, built a fort at Saybrook. Till the expiration of his commission the towns immediately upon the Connecticut were under the government of Massachusetts. Their population in 1643 was three thousand. A convention of these towns met at Hartford, January 14, 1639, and formed a constitution, like that of Massachusetts Bay, thoroughly republican in nature. Connecticut breathed a freer spirit than either Massachusetts or New Haven, being in this respect the peer of Plymouth.
At Hartford Roger Williams was always welcome.
Meantime, in 1638, having touched at Boston the year before, Davenport, Eaton, and others from London began planting at New Haven. The Bible was adopted as their guide in both civil and religious affairs, and a government organized in which only church members could vote or be elected to the General Court. The colony flourished, branching out into several towns. In 1643 it numbered twenty five hundred inhabitants.

As early as 1622, Mason and Gorges were granted land partly in what is now Maine, partly in what is now New Hampshire; and in 1623 Dover and Portsmouth were settled. Wheelwright, a brother-in-law of Mrs.
Hutchinson, with others, purchased of the natives the southeast part of New Hampshire, between the Merrimac and the Piscataqua, and in 1638 Exeter was founded. In the same year with Wheelwright's purchase, Mason obtained from the council of the Plymouth Company a patent to this same section, and the tract was called New Hampshire. These conflicting claims paved the way for future controversies and lawsuits. The settlers here were not Puritans, nor were they obliged to be church members in order to be deputies or freemen.

The settlement of Maine goes back to 1626, when the Plymouth Company granted lands there both to Alexander and to Gorges. In 1639 Gorges secured a royal charter to re-enforce his claim. Large freedom, civil and religious, was allowed. For many years the Maine settlements were small and scattered, made up mostly of such as came to hunt and fish for a season only.

See also: 1631, 1635